Philosophy of education ideologies education

Just as important as ideologies are to society, education also benefits from incorporating them into educational philosophy.

In this article five ideologies of educational philosophy will be observed including Nationalism, Ethno-nationalism, Liberalism, Conservatism, and Marxism. Nationalism is a national spirit, the love of a country, and the emotional ties to the interests of a nation and the symbols that represent it. The United States, rather than having a national educational system, has 50 state school systems that work together and use similar methods.

Nationalism began to be established in the 19th century. Its effects on education were studied by Isaac Kandel and Edward Reisner, who identified three primary themes reflected in the curriculum. The first is that all nations have a history. The second theme is helping people recognize that they are unique individuals, different from others within the nation.

Teaching each individual that his or her voice counts and demonstrating this within the political system is evidence of nationalism. Finally, nationalism maintains a theme of space and time. Nationalism allows people to identify with a particular territory that has borders, a name, a capital, and a relatively common culture in most instances. Nationalism is reflected in education as the nation looks to pass on the cultural heritage, to develop patriotism and loyalty to a nation. It also teaches and instills the common etiquette required at national ceremonies and creates a collective consciousness and awareness toward the nation as a whole.

Furthermore, a national identity is constructed when a common language is adopted and patriotism is demonstrated.

philosophy of education ideologies education

A specific form of nationalism unique to the United States is known as American exceptionalism. The achievements and dominance of the United States in the global arena show that it is an exceptional country with a manifest destiny. American schools are agencies for instilling this sense of national pride, national identity, and loyalty. Schools are also viewed as unique institutions that are established to educate the future generations of an exceptional population.

Ethno-nationalism has some similarities to nationalism, but is actually loyalty to a particular ethnic or racial group rather than to a nation. In the multiethnic environment of the United States, however, ethno-nationalism may cause relative division between various ethnic or racial groups. Liberalism is the ideology that all people should enjoy the greatest possible individual freedom and that it should be guaranteed by due process of law. Liberalists are known to be open to change.

They believe in progress and oppose any restrictions on individual liberties. They believe that this liberation of human rights will lead to progress.

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The key elements of liberalism include the liberal concepts around property and the economy, rationality and the power of reason, secularism, individualism, progress, representative political institutions, and education for general citizenship.Philosophy of educationphilosophical reflection on the nature, aims, and problems of education.

The philosophy of education is Janus -faced, looking both inward to the parent discipline of philosophy and outward to educational practice. This dual focus requires it to work on both sides of the traditional divide between theory and practice, taking as its subject matter both basic philosophical issues e.

These practical issues in turn have implications for a variety of long-standing philosophical problems in epistemologymetaphysicsethicsand political philosophy. In addressing these many issues and problems, the philosopher of education strives for conceptual clarity, argumentative rigour, and informed valuation. The history of philosophy of education is an important source of concerns and issues—as is the history of education itself—for setting the intellectual agenda of contemporary philosophers of education.

Equally relevant is the range of contemporary approaches to the subject. Although it is not possible here to review systematically either that history or those contemporary approaches, brief sketches of several key figures are offered next. The Western philosophical tradition began in ancient Greeceand philosophy of education began with it. The major historical figures developed philosophical views of education that were embedded in their broader metaphysicalepistemological, ethicaland political theories.

This view of the central place of reason in education has been shared by most of the major figures in the history of philosophy of education, despite the otherwise substantial differences in their other philosophical views.

Philosophical And Ideological Perspectives In Education Essay examples

In his dialogue Republic he set out a vision of education in which different groups of students would receive different sorts of education, depending on their abilities, interests, and stations in life. Unlike Plato, Rousseau also prescribed fundamentally distinct educations for boys and girls, and in doing so he raised issues concerning gender and its place in education that are of central concern today.

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While these Deweyan themes are strongly reminiscent of Rousseau, Dewey placed them in a far more sophisticated—albeit philosophically contentious—context. He emphasized the central importance of education for the health of democratic social and political institutions, and he developed his educational and political views from a foundation of systematic metaphysics and epistemology. Of course, the history of philosophy of education includes many more figures than Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Rousseau, and Dewey.

Peters in Britain and Israel Scheffler in the United Stateshave also made substantial contributions to educational thought. It is worth noting again that virtually all these figures, despite their many philosophical differences and with various qualifications and differences of emphasis, take the fundamental aim of education to be the fostering of rationality see reason.

No other proposed aim of education has enjoyed the positive endorsement of so many historically important philosophers—although, as will be seen below, this aim has come under increasing scrutiny in recent decades. Philosophy of education Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Print print Print.

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Part I presents the Educational Ideologies Inventory, a diagnostic test derived from the conceptual model of six basic educational ideologies, defines key terms and discusses the relationship between philosophy and education. Part II identifies and defines the three conservative ideologies: educational fundamentalism, intellectualism and conservatism. Part III examines the three liberal ideologies: educational liberalism, liberationism and anarchism.The philosophy of education examines the goals, forms, methods, and meaning of education.

The term is used to describe both fundamental philosophical analysis of these themes and the description or analysis of particular pedagogical approaches. Considerations of how the profession relates to broader philosophical or sociocultural contexts may be included. For example, philosophers of education study what constitutes upbringing and education, the values and norms revealed through upbringing and educational practices, the limits and legitimization of education as an academic discipline, and the relation between educational theory and practice.

In universities, the philosophy of education usually forms part of departments or colleges of education. Plato's educational philosophy was grounded in a vision of an ideal Republic wherein the individual was best served by being subordinated to a just society due to a shift in emphasis that departed from his predecessors. The mind and body were to be considered separate entities.

In the dialogues of Phaedowritten in his "middle period" B.

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Plato expressed his distinctive views about the nature of knowledge, reality, and the soul: [7]. When the soul and body are united, then nature orders the soul to rule and govern, and the body to obey and serve. Now which of these two functions is akin to the divine? Does not the divine appear…to be that which naturally orders and rules, and the mortal to be that which is subject and servant?

On this premise, Plato advocated removing children from their mothers' care and raising them as wards of the statewith great care being taken to differentiate children suitable to the various castes, the highest receiving the most education, so that they could act as guardians of the city and care for the less able.

Philosophy of education

Education would be holisticincluding facts, skills, physical discipline, and music and art, which he considered the highest form of endeavor. Plato believed that talent was distributed non-genetically and thus must be found in children born in any social class.

He built on this by insisting that those suitably gifted were to be trained by the state so that they might be qualified to assume the role of a ruling class. What this established was essentially a system of selective public education premised on the assumption that an educated minority of the population were, by virtue of their education and inborn educabilitysufficient for healthy governance.

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Plato's writings contain some of the following ideas: Elementary education would be confined to the guardian class till the age of 18, followed by two years of compulsory military training and then by higher education for those who qualified. While elementary education made the soul responsive to the environment, higher education helped the soul to search for truth which illuminated it. Both boys and girls receive the same kind of education.

Elementary education consisted of music and gymnastics, designed to train and blend gentle and fierce qualities in the individual and create a harmonious person. At the age of 20, a selection was made. The best students would take an advanced course in mathematicsgeometryastronomy and harmonics.

The first course in the scheme of higher education would last for ten years. It would be for those who had a flair for science. At the age of 30 there would be another selection; those who qualified would study dialectics and metaphysicslogic and philosophy for the next five years.

After accepting junior positions in the army for 15 years, a man would have completed his theoretical and practical education by the age of Immanuel Kant believed that education differs from training in that the former involves thinking whereas the latter does not.

In addition to educating reason, of central importance to him was the development of character and teaching of moral maxims. Kant was a proponent of public education and of learning by doing.Just as important as ideologies are to society, education also benefits from incorporating them into educational philosophy.

In this article five ideologies of educational philosophy will be observed including Nationalism, Ethno-nationalism, Liberalism, Conservatism, and Marxism.

Nationalism is a national spirit, the love of a country, and the emotional ties to the interests of a nation and the symbols that represent it. The United States, rather than having a national educational system, has 50 state school systems that work together and use similar methods.

Nationalism began to be established in the 19th century. Its effects on education were studied by Isaac Kandel and Edward Reisner, who identified three primary themes reflected in the curriculum.

The first is that all nations have a history. The second theme is helping people recognize that they are unique individuals, different from others within the nation. Teaching each individual that his or her voice counts and demonstrating this within the political system is evidence of nationalism. Finally, nationalism maintains a theme of space and time.

Nationalism allows people to identify with a particular territory that has borders, a name, a capital, and a relatively common culture in most instances. Nationalism is reflected in education as the nation looks to pass on the cultural heritage, to develop patriotism and loyalty to a nation.

It also teaches and instills the common etiquette required at national ceremonies and creates a collective consciousness and awareness toward the nation as a whole. Furthermore, a national identity is constructed when a common language is adopted and patriotism is demonstrated. A specific form of nationalism unique to the United States is known as American exceptionalism. The achievements and dominance of the United States in the global arena show that it is an exceptional country with a manifest destiny.

American schools are agencies for instilling this sense of national pride, national identity, and loyalty. Schools are also viewed as unique institutions that are established to educate the future generations of an exceptional population. Ethno-nationalism has some similarities to nationalism, but is actually loyalty to a particular ethnic or racial group rather than to a nation.

In the multiethnic environment of the United States, however, ethno-nationalism may cause relative division between various ethnic or racial groups. Liberalism is the ideology that all people should enjoy the greatest possible individual freedom and that it should be guaranteed by due process of law. Liberalists are known to be open to change. They believe in progress and oppose any restrictions on individual liberties.

They believe that this liberation of human rights will lead to progress.

philosophy of education ideologies education

The key elements of liberalism include the liberal concepts around property and the economy, rationality and the power of reason, secularism, individualism, progress, representative political institutions, and education for general citizenship. The liberalist conception of property and the government is the belief that government should not interfere with business transactions. Liberalists believe that we should have the liberty to compete in the world of business and acquire property as we are able.

Also, employers should have the right to hire and fire employees at their discretion, and investors should have the right to invest and profit in any manner they please.

While liberalists agree on these concepts, they disagree on the extent to which the economy should be regulated. Liberalism also assumes that human beings have rationality and the power of reasoning. Liberalists believe that most people can be reasonable, and that teachers need to use teaching methods that build and support the ability to rationalize and use their intelligence.

Secularism is belief in the separation of church and state. Although secularists might subscribe to a personal religion, they believe that religion is a private matter and should be completely separate from a public education.

The belief that individuals retain inherent human rights that the social order cannot give or take away is a branch of secularism known as individualism. Secularists believe in the need for a commonly held social agreement for political and educational decisions. Secularists tend to support progressive and representative political institutions, recognizing that the state needs power to effect the decisions of the majority.

philosophy of education ideologies education

Finally, secularists believe that we should educate everyone equally and in preparation to becoming a political leader. Because our leaders are elected, they advocate an education that provides a general knowledge of the political system and the skills to make informed decisions on which candidate they should elect. The opposite of liberalism is conservatism. Conservatism is the belief that institutions should function according to their intended original purpose and that any concepts that have not been maintained should be restored.In this essay, I will start with a brief history of the Social Efficiency and Learner Centered ideologies of education.

I will then compare and contrast the two educational ideologies. For each ideology, I will describe how the ideology treats the nature of the learner, the subject content of the ideology, how the ideology views the needs of society, and which type of knowledge the ideology deems most important. Finally, I will discuss the supporting arguments and criticisms of the two ideologies of education. Ideal schools or what we now call, Learner Centered schools, have existed in the past and continue to exist today at all levels of education.

The ideal school originated in Europe and were promoted by four early educationists. First, John Amos Comenius emphasized that learning was developmental. He argued that learning progressed from concrete to abstract thought Schiro, Jean-Jacques Rousseauhowever, is the person most credited with introducing the Learner Centered ideology.

He believed that children were not miniature adults. Friedrich Froebel invented kindergarten as we know it today. He emphasized the use of games, songs, stories, crafts, and manipulation as tools for early education.

The ideal school then became known as organic schools at the turn of the 19 th century. Marietta Johnson promoted her organic schools with students from elementary school to secondary school in the first few decades of the 20 th century. Her school is still in operation today.

The organic schools became the progressive schools in the s. Progressive schools became popularized in the s through the s and reached their peak during the Depression Era. Rugg, and A.

Education Ideologies: A comparative Study

The open education movement promoted Learner Centered education in the s and s in K education. The Sudbury Valley School still practices Learner Centered education from elementary through secondary school.

At the higher educational level, Learner Centered education took the form of the free university in the s through the s.Plato proposed philosophers as governors in life-long pursuit of philosophical learning.

Socrates was the ideal paradigm of an educating philosopher: he tried to wake up human minds so that they could be aware of themselves and of the world, criticizing tradition and prejudices in a logically.

The author is not a philosopher, a historian or a sociologist of science. Educational philosophies have helped create and shape education from the ancient times until the modern times. There are many educational philosophies and all believe that they are the best for educators to teach and for students to learn from. There is no right or wrong answer when it comes to how to impart knowledge, it all depends on the educator and the individual learning profile.

Some educational philosophies focus on student-centered learning while others lean towards the educator facilitating. Lifelong Learning Vocational Education Training Introduction The concept of lifelong learning has always been central to adult and vocational education.

Technical and Further Education TAFE was developed in the 's as a provision of education not only for the initial preparation of skills for the Australian workforce, but for learning throughout life. Similarly, lifelong learning has long been associated with individuals' personal development or continuing education to advance or change careers.

Out of 8 current students, 7 are female and all of them are full-time students, researchers or employees. Confronting culture shocks, ideological conflicts and shifts, some of them expresses their interest in feminism to me. Thus, I incorporated this theme into our curricular content. In doing so, I hope I can not only.

Scholars may study leadership from various perspectives, from a managerial standpoint, an in-depth philosophical analysis of the concept and even from the psychological aspect of the discipline. From the Medieval era to the Renaissance era, Poland is remarked as a period of change. Poland was expanding as a country and many political events were occurring. During this span of time, Polish literature signifies various changes in its themes, beliefs and.

She received her high school education from Scholastica College. Upon completion of her education she became the first professional nurse to complete a PhD on anthropology. Due to the broader approach in her education, she became the first to bring knowledge of anthropology and nursing together to develop.

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John Dewey: America's philosopher of democracy and his importance to education

Philosophical And Ideological Perspectives In Education Introduction The Second Edition of Philosophical and Ideological Perspectives in Education continue to examine the major schools of philosophy of education through the systems approach. It also considers the relationship of education to major ideologies such as Liberalism, Conservativism, and Marxism. It analyzes the impact of philosophy and ideology on educational theory and practice by examining such theories as Essentialism, Perennialism, Progressivism, and Social Reconstructionism.


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